Bacchus brought my attention to this illustration. Probably more junky pop science than mad science, but the aesthetic is definitely right for Erotic Mad Science.
(Click on image to see full-size.) It’s from Adam magazine, November 1965 and can be found at the fun blog Vintage Girlie Mags.
(Addendum: this post’s title is a caption of a cartoon that supposedly appeared in the New Yorker but which I can’t find. If anyone knows if this is really true and when it might have appeared, I’d be most grateful if you would let me know.)